218-A Couch Hall
Ph.D. 2011 Kent State University
Dissertation: Preschool Children’s Judgments of Learning: The Effects of Delay and Practice
M.A. 2008 Kent State University
Thesis: Young Children’s Awareness of Their Own Lexical Ignorance: Relations to False Belief Understanding and Basic Memory Processes
B.A. 2005 Mount Union College
Psychology (Magna Cum Laude)
The highest level goal of my program of research is to promote student learning. I am interested in understanding how children learn, and using this knowledge to help them become more competent learners. One way to improve student learning is to help them develop their ability to monitor what they know. Although young children do not usually engage in self-directed study, it is important to understand when and how metacognitive monitoring develops. In order to teach this skill, it is necessary to know how much children understand about how the mind works. In addition, all students should eventually learn the skill of distinguishing between well-learned and less well-learned information. This skill will help students allocate study time appropriately because they will know which items need to be studied further.
Previous research has shown that preschoolers are overconfident when making predictions about their memory. I am interested in examining factors that may help young children monitor their memory more accurately. Specifically, I have been studying preschooler’s item-by-item judgments of learning (JOLs), which are judgments about whether previously studied items will be recalled on a subsequent memory test. My research indicates that two factors, the timing of the judgment and retrieval practice with feedback, can reduce overconfidence in preschoolers.
More recently, I have also begun examining the benefits students can derive from being tested on material, relative to having the opportunity to restudy the material. Research with college students suggests that tests themselves can be surprisingly effective tools for learning, rather than just assessments of learning. I am interested in determining whether the benefit of testing extends to young children. The mechanisms underlying the testing effect are not well understood. Thus, I am also interested in studying possible explanations for why testing is beneficial for memory. I am currently examining several of these explanations, including category access, category clustering, and item-specific processing.
Lipowski, S. L., Merriman, W. E., & Dunlosky, J. (in press). Preschoolers can make highly accurate judgments of learning. Developmental Psychology.
Lipko, A. R., Dunlosky, J., Lipowski, S. L., & Merriman, W. E. (2012). Young children are not underconfident with practice: The benefit of ignoring a fallible memory heuristic. Journal of Cognition and Development, 13(2), 174-188.
Lipowski, S. L. & Merriman, W. E. (2011). Knowledge judgments and object memory processes in early childhood: Support for the dual criterion account of object nameability judgment. Journal of Cognition and Development, 12(4), 481-501.
Lipowski, S. L., Pyc, M. A., Dunlosky, J. & Rawson, K. A. (in prep) An examination of developmental trends and retrieval practice effects in young children.
Lipowski, S. L., Pyc, M. A., Dunlosky, J & Rawson, K. A. (2011, May). An examination of developmental trends and mechanisms underlying the testing effect in young children. Talk given at the Annual Meeting of the Midwestern Psychological Association Conference, Chicago, IL.
Lipowski, S. L., Merriman, W. E., & Dunlosky, J. (2010, May). The influence of response biases and practice on preschoolers’ delayed judgments of learning. Talk given at the Annual Meeting of the Midwestern Psychological Association Conference, Chicago, IL.
Lipowski, S. L., & Merriman, W. E. (2009, April). Young children’s awareness of lexical ignorance: Relations to false belief understanding and the efficiency of object processing. Presented at the Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Denver, CO.
Lipko, A. R., Dunlosky, J, Lipowski, S. L., & Merriman, W. E. (2009, April). An investigation of the underconfidence-with-practice effect with young children. Presented at the Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Denver, CO.
Lipowski, S. L., & Merriman, W. E. (2007, March). Children’s understanding of the mind: Relations among awareness of lexical ignorance, false belief, and memory. Presented at the Biennal Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Boston, MA